Gardening – Pests

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Pests cause damage to the garden with biting- and chewing or sucking mouthparts and should be controlled. The different pesticides poison by means of (1) acting through the stomach, (2) direct contact or (3) inhalation.

Be very careful when working with pesticides, they are poisonous and should be respected. Keep in a safe place, work with protective clothing and wear a proper respirator.

American bollworm affects mainly flowers, fruit trees, strawberries, beans, tomatoes, potatoes, pumpkin- and cabbage members with chewing mouthparts. Up to 3cm long, beige to green and with double, yellow stripes down its length.
Control: Active ingredients of Chlorpyrifos, Carbaryl or Fenitrothion.
Ants affect mainly Coleonema, Codiaeum, Leucospermum, Acalyphas and conifers by nesting in their roots.
Control: Drench the soil with active ingredients of Chlorpyrifos, Gamma BHC or Diazinon.
Aphids affect new growth of citrus trees, cabbages, roses and tomatoes by sucking sap and transmit serious plant viruses. Small, soft and either grey, green, yellow, orange or black coloured. Control: Dust or spray with active ingredients of Mercaptothion, Gamma BHC or Oxydemeton-methyl.
Australian bug affects mainly Acalypha, belloprone, gardenia, deciduous fruit trees and, rarely, citrus trees by sucking sap. A white egg sac covers the oval abdomen and ridges extend down the length of this unhurried insect's body.
Control: Spray with Oleum.
Barberton Daisy fly affects members of the daisy family by laying eggs in flower buds.
Control: Spray almost mature buds with Fenthion, two weekly.
Begrada bug affects mainly ornamentals, Cruciferae and pawpaw seedlings by sucking sap. With orange spots on the 5mm, glossy, black insects' backs.
Control: Dust with Gamma BHC.
Caterpillars affect mainly lawn grasses with chewing mouthparts, feeding at night, causing yellowing and browning of these areas.
Control: Apply 4:1:1 with Karbaspray; or drench with Chlorpyrifos or Carbaryl.
Chafer beetles affect mainly carnations, roses, proteas, dahlias, pecans, beans and grapes with chewing mouthparts, eating irregular holes usually at night. These highly destructive beetles can defoliate plants overnight. These 1 - 1,5cm beetles are greyish- or brownish shaded.
Control: Spray with active ingredients of Mercaptothion, Fenitrothion or dust with Gamma BHC.
CMR beetles affect mainly cannas, roses, hibiscus, peaches and beans with chewing mouthparts. These 2 - 3cm long beetles are black and yellow.
Control: Spray with active ingredients of Mercaptothion, Fenitrothion or dusting with Gamma BHC.
Codling moth affects apple-, apricot-, pear-, plum-, peach-, quince- and walnut trees by depositing eggs on the fruit. A greyish moth who's larvae feeds by tunnelling through fruit, bequeathing its faeces.
Control: Spray with active ingredient of Fenthion or Cypermethrin.
Crickets affect seedlings, strawberries, potatoes and lawns. These creatures tunnel into their food and dislike wet conditions.
Control: 4:1:1 with Karbaspray; or Chlorpyrifos.
Cutworms affect succulent plants and seedlings by chewing a small fraction of the stem, just above the soil, at night.
Control: Sprinkle an active ingredient of Sodium fluosilicate around the stem.
Diamond-backed moth larvae affect all Cruciferae by chewing from the leaves' undersides up. Small caterpillars, of pale greens, leave silken pupae with infestation.
Control: Dust with Gamma BHC.
Flea beetles affect shrubs, olive trees, hibiscus members and Cruciferae by chewing tiny holes in the foliage. They are small and vary in colour.
Control: Active ingredients of Gamma BHC, Carbaryl, Mercaptothion, Chlorpyrifos or Fenitrothion.
Fruit beetles affect mostly peaches, flowering shrubs, annuals and roses. These large flat creatures, usually black and yellow, have tough wings.
Control: Manual removal with first appearance.
Fruit fly affect mangoes, guavas, peaches, nectarines and other soft fruit by laying eggs just beneath the skin.
Control: Spraying newly formed fruit with Fenthion or Cypermethrin.
Fruit-piercing moth affects mainly apricot-, apple-, fig-, plum-, peach-, pear- and quince trees or grapes by sucking sap.
Control: Manual removal at night.
Grasshoppers and Locusts affect shrubs, grass and other plants, chewing off sections.
Control: Spray with Mercaptothion or Carbaryl or remove manually.
Green Vegetable bugs affect a variety of plants, vegetables and fruit by sucking sap and causing fruit to drop prematurely.
Control: Spray Carbaryl, Fenitrothion or Cypermethrin or dust with Gamma BHC.
Leaf-eating beetles affect mainly Cucurbits, potatoes and beans by chewing the foliage and reducing food produce.
Control: Dusting with Gamma BHC and Carbaryl.
Leafhoppers affect tomatoes, marigolds and many more plants by sucking sap from foliage, leaving white flecks. Yellowish, hopping creatures.
Control: Spray with Mercaptothion or Oxydemeton-methyl.
Leaf Miners effect Cruciferae, tomatoes, beans, potatoes and petunias by laying eggs beneath leaf surfaces. The nymphs' tunnels appear white on the surfaces.
Control: Spray Oxydemeton-methyl.
Leaf Rollers affect mostly grapes, apples, apricots, pears, peaches and plums by feeding on fruit surfaces. They also feed on new foliage. They roll and bind leaves with white thread.
Control: Spray with Cypermethrin.
Lily Borers affect mainly Amaryllis, Crinum, Cyrtanthus, Haemanthus, Narcissus and Nerines by laying eggs in, tunnelling- and feeding through foliage.
Control: Active ingredient of Cypermethrin.
Mealy bugs affect indoor plants, ferns, palms, proteas, crotons and deciduous fruit trees by sucking sap. It has a soft, white coating and excretes on leaves.
Control: Spray with Garden Gun (for indoors), Chlorpyrifos or Mercaptothion.
Millipedes affect mainly Booysen berries, strawberries, potatoes, carrots and ornamentals with chewing mouthparts and are reddish, brown or black.
Control: Bait of Metaldehyde and Carbaryl.
Nematodes affect fruit trees, vegetables and others by attacking root systems. Of the Nematode group, some are beneficial, those damaging are lesion-, dagger- and ring nematodes.
Control: Grow Marigolds densely and dig them into the soil once 10cm high.
Psylla affects olives, citrus trees and Vepris undulata by sucking sap and possibly transmitting disease. Control: Spray with Oxydemeton-methyl.
Pumpkin flies affect members of Cucurbitaceae by stinging and laying eggs beneath fruit's skins, causing it to rot.
Control: Spray when flowers open with Cypermethrin or Fenthion, every two weeks.
Red Spider Mite affects mainly deciduous fruit trees, tomatoes, potatoes, peppers, beans, carrots, strawberries and many more by sucking sap so fast the foliage appears granular. The tiny mites are off-white, reddish or brown.
Control: Drench soil with Tetradifon and spray with mineral oil.
Scale insects affect deciduous fruit trees, citrus trees, mangoes, ficus, dieffenbachia, palms, aloes and others by sucking sap. Different varieties of colour, shape and sizes exist, otherwise very similar to mealy bugs.
Control: Spray with Oleum or Chlorpyrifos.
Slugs and snails affect all plants by chewing on the fleshy foliage and stems.
Control: Spray with liquid snail poison and put out snail baits.
Snout beetles affect deciduous fruit trees, strawberries and cycads by chewing on the fruit and plant parts at night.
Control: Dust with active ingredient of Carbaryl.
Thrips affect citrus fruit, many vegetables and bulbous plants by sucking sap and spoiling their appearance. These small, torpedo-shaped creatures are grey or black.
Control: Gamma BHC, Mercaptothion or Fenitrothion.
Tip Wilters affect roses, Tecomaria, Cussonias and young growth by sucking sap and causing wilting. Control: Dust with Gamma BHC, or alternatively remove manually.
White Flies affect ornamentals, tomatoes and beans by sucking sap from the foliage. These white creatures are tiny, often discovered on the leaves' undersides.
Control: Spray with Cypermethrin.
Woolly aphids affect pears and apples by feeding off new growth, roots, wounds or fruit. A purple creature clothed with white fluff.
Control: Spray with Mercaptothion or Mineral oil.

Treatments through Chemical Insecticides

Moth larvae: Bacillus thuringiensis (no withholding period), sold as Depel or Thuricide.
Moths, plant bugs and caterpillars: Carbaryl (withholding period of 3 days), sold as Karbaspray, Dicarbam, Sevin, Extermacarb, Ravyon etc. Beetles and plant bugs: Chlorpyrifos (withholding period of 7 - 21 days), sold as Dursban.
Tuber moth, stalk borers and American bollworm: Cypermethrin (withholding period of 4 days), sold as Polytrin, Ripcord or Cymbush.
Variety of insect pests: Demeton-S-methyl (withholding period of 21 days), sold as Metasystox, Demetox or Demeton.
Variety of mites and insects: Diazinon (withholding period of 14 days), sold as Blast, Dazzel etc.
Red spider mite: Dicofol (withholding period of 7 days), sold as Acarin mitigan or Kelthane.
Aphids, thrips, fruit fly, bean fly, jassids, lace bugs, leaf miner, mealy and shield bugs: Dimethoate (withholding period of 14 days), sold as Roque, Rogor, Protekta A, Aphicide etc.
Broad-spectrum insecticide: Dendosulfan (withholding period of 2 days), sold as Thiojack, Thiodan, Agrisulphan etc.
Codling moth, thrips, fruit fly, mealy and lace bug: Fenthion (withholding period of 7 days), sold as Lebaycid.
White fly and American bollworm: Fenvalerate (withholding period of 7 - 14 days), sold as Sumicidin.
Ants and mites: Gamma B.H.C. (withholding period of 30 days), sold as Dyant, Bexadust, Lindane, Antsprey etc.
Certain scale insects and mites plus blight and leaf spot of fruit trees: Lime sulphur (withholding period of 3 days), sold as Lime sulphur.
Rusts, downy mildew and fungal leaf spots: Mancozeb (withholding period of 7 days), sold as Nemespor, Dithane M45, Miceb Super and Vondozeb.
Scale insects, thrips, aphids, green vegetable and mealy bugs, caterpillars: Mercaptothion (withholding period of 7 days), sold as Malasol, Malathion, Kopthion, Extermathion etc.
Many scale insects: Mineral oil (withholding period of 1 day), sold as Alboleum, Curoleum, Summer oil, Protekta oleum etc.
Moths, beetles and white fly: Permethrin (withholding period of 14 days), sold as Ambush.


Snail and Slug Control in Harmony with Nature / Winter Garden Care: To Spray or Not to Spray? / Using Winter Annuals Effectively / Guidelines to Planting Seedlings / Februaury in the Kitchen Garden / Start a Kitchen Garden / Container Recipes / Garden Plants Perfect for Attracting Beneficial Insect Parasites and Predators / The Living World of Conifers / Preparing Roses for Spring / Pruning is Rewarding / Spring Seed Sowing / Spiders and Pesticides / Cold Blooded Wildlife: The Gift of Nature / Predatory Ladybirds: Nature's Solution to Aphid Control / Organic Plant Nutrition / Organics and Chemicals / Irrigation Practice in Landscaping - An Alternative View / Drip Irrigation in Landscaping

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